Every pregnant woman past some age is recommended to perform an amniocentesis to check whether her fetus suffers from Down syndrome. The reason is that the risk of this syndrome increases with the age of the mother. But the test is risky, as it can lead to miscarriage, thus it is only performed for higher (syndrome) risk pregnancies.
Eduardo Fajnzylber, Joseph Hotz and Seth Sanders tell us that the logic that the medical profession has adopted is wrong. The basic idea is that the risk of miscarriage is constant with the mother's age, while the risk of Down syndrome is increasing. At first sight you would only want to test older women. That is the logic from the perspective of the physician. They now propose to see this from the perspective of the mother. An older women will have fewer opportunities to conceive, thus a miscarriage is much more costly to her compared to a young woman. This would make her to want to avoid the risk of miscarriage. The recommended strategy becomes much less obvious and could in fact be that young women carry out the test and older ones bypass it. It all boils down to a personal evaluation of the cost of miscarriage, Down syndrome and abortion. Not as easy as the physicians say it is.